Fennovoima's role in the project

Fennovoima is the owner of the Hanhikivi-1 project and will become the operator of the finished power plant. Fennovoima has granted an EPC contract for a complete turn-key delivery of the nuclear power plant to RAOS Project Oy.

The plant supplier RAOS Project Oy has four main subcontractors. Titan-2, as the main construction contractor of the Hanhikivi 1 project, is in charge of site preparation and infrastructure works, construction of the nuclear and turbine island, installation works, materials and equipment, as well as I&C equipment.

Fennovoima is responsible for applying for the required licenses including the construction and operating licenses.

Fennovoima’s own construction scope primarily covers auxiliary buildings such as the training center, the administration building and the plant office, as presented in the picture below.

Regulatory requirements

The nuclear energy sector is a strictly regulated and supervised business environment where compliance with all applicable legislation and regulations is crucial for the operation of the power plant.

The Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment (MEAE) is responsible for the overall supervision of the use of nuclear energy in Finland. The Ministry prepares license decisions, drafts proposals to improve legislation, and steers the planning and implementation of nuclear waste management. The National Nuclear Waste Management Fund operates in connection with the Ministry.

Nuclear activities in Finland are governed by three main legislative instruments, which are supplemented by various secondary instruments. The main acts are:

  • the Nuclear Energy Act 1987
  • the Radiation Protection Act 1991
  • the Nuclear Liability Act 1972

The Nuclear Energy Act (990/1987) and the Nuclear Energy Decree (161/1988) ensure that the use of nuclear energy is in line with the overall good of the society. The use of nuclear energy must be safe for both man and the environment, and it may not promote the spread of nuclear weapons.

The Nuclear Energy Act was amended on July 2015, and the mandate of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) was expanded. STUK also received a mandate to issue binding regulations on technical details concerning nuclear safety principles.


During the current licensing phase of the Hanhikivi 1 project, the regulatory guides on nuclear safety (YVL Guides) are the main regulatory instruction. The YVL Guides cover all issues influencing the safety of a nuclear power plant, such as design, operation, safety of the plant and its environment, nuclear materials, nuclear waste, structures and equipment. The renewed guides were published in late 2013 and have been applied to Fennovoima’s nuclear power plant project.

The Nuclear Liability Act provides that the operators of nuclear facilities located in Finland have unlimited liability for damage caused to third parties in Finland. Fennovoima is also required to make annual contributions to the National Nuclear Waste Management Fund. The purpose of the fund is to collect, store and reliably invest the funds that are going to be needed to take care of nuclear waste in the future. Through the fund, society has a financial guarantee that nuclear waste management can be arranged under all circumstances.

In addition, several other laws under general legislation, such as the Companies Act, labor and privacy legislation, and legislation preventing underground economy, affect the Hanhikivi 1 project directly. To ensure compliance with all applicable legislation, every employee must have sufficient knowledge and understanding of the legislation and regulations that affect our actions and operations. That is safeguarded with continuous training of our personnel.